Franco Della Peruta argues in favour of close links between the operas and the Risorgimento, emphasizing Verdi's patriotic intent and links to the values of the Risorgimento. Cavour called for volunteers to enlist in the Italian liberation. When the king entered Sessa Aurunca at the head of his army, Garibaldi willingly handed over his dictatorial power. In early August, the French Emperor Napoleon III recalled his garrison from Rome, thus no longer providing protection to the Papal State. It experienced a privileged status and evaded being converted into a province. The Italian Army reached the Aurelian Walls on 19 September and placed Rome under a state of siege. Within three days, the invading force had swelled to 4,000 men. After greeting Victor Emmanuel in Teano with the title of King of Italy, Garibaldi entered Naples riding beside the king. 27–60. Officially, the capital was not moved from Florence to Rome until July 1871.. On 9 October, Victor Emmanuel arrived and took command. In sharp contrast to his hypothetical expectations, there was no local uprising and the invaders were quickly overpowered. The German state of Prussia was aware of the tensions provoked by Austria’s presence in Venice, and the Italian Government seeking an ally against Austria, so they decided to ally with Italy. There were obstacles, however. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Italy remained united under the Ostrogothic Kingdom and later disputed between the Kingdom of the Lombards and the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire. Italy, including the Papal States, then became the site of proxy wars between the major powers, notably the Holy Roman Empire (including Austria), Spain, and France. , Risorgimento won the support of many leading Italian opera composers. Napoleon thus implemented a wide array of liberal reforms in France and across Continental Europe, especially in Italy and Germany, as summarized by British historian Andrew Roberts: The revolutions were thus completely crushed. Three ideals of unification appeared. Mazzini was an ardent advocate of the necessity for Italian unification through the desires and actions of the Italian people. Such factors remain in the 21st century. The movement to unite Italy into one cultural and political entity was known as the Risorgimento (literally, "resurgence"). https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Episodio_delle_cinque_giornate_%28Baldassare_Verazzi%29.jpg In the Constitution of the Roman Republic, religious freedom was guaranteed by article 7, the independence of the pope as head of the Catholic Church was guaranteed by article 8 of the Principi fondamentali, while the death penalty was abolished by article 5, and free public education was provided by article 8 of the Titolo I. ... Italians who, like Ugo Foscolo and Gabriele Rossetti, harboured patriotic sentiments, were driven into exile. Access to History: The Unification of Italy 1789-1896 (4th rf., Hodder Education, 2015), textbook. Despite a great victory over France’s superior numbers, it was clear that they couldn’t hold the city for much longer. ", Gavriel Shapiro, "Nabokov and Pellico: Invitation to a Beheading and My Prisons.". they asked. To what extent did foreign intervention impact the Italian unification movement? He accomplished this by stationing troops close to the border prompting the Habsburg government to issue an ultimatum that was rejected. Revolts are suppressed. , Garibaldi, a native of Nice (then part of Piedmont), participated in an uprising in Piedmont in 1834 and was sentenced to death.