The major Whig historian, S. R. Gardiner,[full citation needed] popularised the idea that the English Civil War was a "Puritan Revolution", which challenged the repressive Stuart Church and prepared the way for religious toleration. These estimates indicate that England suffered a 4 percent loss of population, Scotland a loss of 6 percent, while Ireland suffered a loss of 41 percent of its population. , In early January 1642, Charles, accompanied by 400 soldiers, attempted to arrest five members of the House of Commons on a charge of treason. Built-up inside the natural defence of a nearly impassable barrier reef, to fend off the might of Spain, these defences were too powerful for the Parliamentary fleet sent in 1651 under the command of Admiral Sir George Ayscue, which was forced instead to blockade Bermuda for several months 'til the Bermudians negotiated a separate peace that respected the internal status quo. The Whig view was challenged and largely superseded by the Marxist school, which became popular in the 1940s, and saw the English Civil War as a bourgeois revolution. Parliamentarian forces led by the Earl of Manchester besieged the port of King's Lynn, Norfolk, which under Sir Hamon L'Estrange held out until September. Lucy Wentor, a young lady who was attacked by soldiers during the civil war, and then rejected by her sweetheart, hopes to start her life afresh in the capital with her uncle and aunt. However, Montrose, who had raised a mercenary force in Norway, had already landed and could not abandon the fight. Hobbes analysed in turn the following aspects of English thought during the war: the opinions of divinity and politics that spurred rebellion; rhetoric and doctrine used by the rebels against the king; and how opinions about "taxation, the conscription of soldiers, and military strategy" affected the outcomes of battles and shifts of sovereignty..  These historians focused on the minutiae of the years immediately before the civil war, returning to the contingency-based historiography of Clarendon's famous History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England. In 1642 some basic fortifications were built, in the form of street barricades and small earthworks. Throughout May, the House of Commons launched several bills attacking bishops and Episcopalianism in general, each time defeated in the Lords. As King of Scots, he had to find money to pay the Scottish army in England; as King of England, he had to find money to pay and equip an English army to defend England. (The elected members included Oliver Cromwell, John Hampden, and Edward Coke.) The republican government of the Commonwealth of England ruled England (and later all of Scotland and Ireland) from 1649 to 1653 and from 1659 to 1660.  The members passed a law stating that a new Parliament would convene at least once every three years — without the King's summons if need be. A peace demonstration by London women, which turned violent, was suppressed by William Waller's regiment of horse.  In the Midlands, a Parliamentary force under Sir John Gell besieged and captured the cathedral city of Lichfield, after the death of the original commander, Lord Brooke. This happened in the first major skirmish of the Civil War, when a troop of about 1,000 Royalist cavalry under Prince Rupert, a German nephew of the King and one of the outstanding cavalry commanders of the war, defeated a Parliamentary cavalry detachment under Colonel John Brown at the Battle of Powick Bridge, which crossed the River Teme close to Worcester. Charles also attempted to impose episcopacy on Scotland; the Scots' violent rejection of bishops and liturgical worship sparked the Bishops' Wars in 1639–1640. Cromwell's army then took Edinburgh, and by the end of the year his army had occupied much of southern Scotland.  They marched to the west of England where English Royalist sympathies were strongest, but although some English Royalists joined the army, they were far fewer in number than Charles and his Scottish supporters had hoped. " So the Speaker proclaimed himself a servant of Parliament, rather than the King. There was a battle at Edgehill on 23 October. Within months, the Irish Catholics, fearing a resurgence of Protestant power, struck first, and all Ireland soon descended into chaos. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. The London lobsters, Haselrig's Lobsters or just "Lobsters" were the name given to the cavalry unit raised and led by Sir Arthur Haselrig, a Parliamentarian who fought in the English Civil War.  This document took the form of a "loyal protest", rejecting all innovations not first tested by free Parliaments and General Assemblies of the Church. Colonel Thomas Horton defeated the Royalist rebels at the Battle of St Fagans (8 May) and the rebel leaders surrendered to Cromwell on 11 July after a protracted two-month siege of Pembroke. The English Civil War Society Group dedicated to re-enacting 17th Century battles.  Moreover, the Church authorities revived statutes from the time of Elizabeth I about church attendance and fined Puritans for not attending Anglican services..  Furthermore, Puritans did not necessarily ally themselves with Parliamentarians. As Charles shared his father's position on the power of the crown (James had described kings as "little gods on Earth", chosen by God to rule in accordance with the doctrine of the "Divine Right of Kings"), the suspicions of the Parliamentarians had some justification.. In the early 19th century, Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "the Great Civil War". , A series of Royalist uprisings throughout England and a Scottish invasion occurred in the summer of 1648. [page needed]. The Council decided on the London route, but not to avoid a battle, for the Royalist generals wanted to fight Essex before he grew too strong, and the temper of both sides made it impossible to postpone the decision.  Several more active members of the opposition were imprisoned, which caused outrage; one, John Eliot, subsequently died in prison and came to be seen as a martyr for the rights of Parliament.. Armed political Royalism was at an end, but despite being a prisoner, Charles I was considered by himself and his opponents (almost to the last) as necessary to ensure the success of whichever group could come to terms with him. First and foremost, to avoid Parliament, the King needed to avoid war. City of London War Loans 1642. From 1646 to 1648 the breach between Army and Parliament widened day by day until finally the Presbyterian party, combined with the Scots and the remaining Royalists, felt itself strong enough to begin a Second Civil War. , The Parliamentarians who opposed the King did not remain passive in this pre-war period. , Having dissolved Parliament and unable to raise money without it, the king assembled a new one in 1628. So the victors in the Second Civil War showed little mercy to those who had brought war into the land again. Oxford and the English Civil War In the 17th century, Oxford played an important role in Britain’s civil war. The outcome was threefold: the trial and execution of Charles I (1649); the exile of his son, Charles II (1651); and the replacement of English monarchy with the Commonwealth of England, which from 1653 (as the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland) unified the British Isles under the personal rule of Oliver Cromwell (1653–58) and briefly his son Richard (1658–59).  Almost the whole of Northern England was occupied and Charles forced to pay £850 per day to keep the Scots from advancing. By 1647 the Royalist threat had receded and Parliament had them demolished. ... Introduction to the war loans. The defeat at the Battle of Lostwithiel in Cornwall, however, marked a serious reverse for Parliament in the south-west of England. The English Civil War was an intermittent nine-year confrontation between King and Parliament, but how was it won and how was it lost? We’ll explore the main sites and landmarks finding out the stories behind the facades and how Westminster was, in fact, at the centre of the English Civil War. On the evening of the surrender of Colchester, Parliamentarians had Sir Charles Lucas and Sir George Lisle shot. Meanwhile, Amandeep travels back in time to fight besides the men and women of the English Civil War – but will it be Parliament or the King who wins? This was violently resisted.  This victory marked the end of the Second English Civil War. [page needed] Among the musketeers were pike men, carrying pikes of 12 feet (4 m) to 18 feet (5 m) long, whose main purpose was to protect the musketeers from cavalry charges. After the regicide, Charles as the eldest son was publicly proclaimed King Charles II in the Royal Square of St. Helier, Jersey, on 17 February 1649 (after a first such proclamation in Edinburgh on 5 February 1649). The term "English Civil War" appears most often in the singular, although historians often divide the conflict into two or three separate wars. Here are four of the key battles that shaped the destiny of a nation. The Royalist areas included the countryside, the shires, the cathedral city of Oxford, and the less economically developed areas of northern and western England. Helped by the Scots, Parliament won at Marston Moor (2 July 1644), gaining York and the north of England. The wars spanning all four countries are known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. , Charles and his Parliament hoped that the execution of Strafford and the Protestation would end the drift towards war, but in fact, they encouraged it. In the same year, however, Cromwell formed his troop of "Ironsides", a disciplined unit that demonstrated his military leadership ability. However, Charles's insistence on giving command of the English force to his unpopular royal favourite George Villiers, the Duke of Buckingham, undermined that support. This Rump Parliament received orders to set up, in the name of the people of England, a High Court of Justice for the trial of Charles I for treason. As the summer progressed, cities and towns declared their sympathies for one faction or the other: for example, the garrison of Portsmouth commanded by Sir George Goring declared for the King, but when Charles tried to acquire arms from Kingston upon Hull, the weaponry depository used in the previous Scottish campaigns, Sir John Hotham, the military governor appointed by Parliament in January, refused to let Charles enter the town, and when Charles returned with more men later, Hotham drove them off. Early in the Long Parliament, the house overwhelmingly accused Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford of high treason and other crimes and misdemeanors. A Scots army defeated Charles's forces in the north, then captured Newcastle. Political manœuvring to gain an advantage in numbers led Charles to negotiate a ceasefire in Ireland, freeing up English troops to fight on the Royalist side in England, while Parliament offered concessions to the Scots in return for aid and assistance. [d] By mid-September Essex's forces had grown to 21,000 infantry and 4,200 cavalry and dragoons. There are no figures to calculate how many died from war-related diseases, but if the same ratio of disease to battle deaths from English figures is applied to the Scottish figures, a not unreasonable estimate of 60,000 people is achieved, from a population of about one million.. Clearly London was not going to be exempt from the tragedies of the Civil War, but I assumed the physical evidence no longer existed. Friction between Royalists and Puritans in Maryland came to a head in the Battle of the Severn. , The new Parliament proved even more hostile to Charles than its predecessor.  However, military force shortly afterward dissolved this as well. Positioned on each side of the infantry were cavalry, with a right wing led by the lieutenant-general and left by the commissary general. In practice, Presbyterianism meant that committees of lay elders had a substantial voice in church government, as opposed to merely being subjects to a ruling hierarchy. In the summer of 1642, Charles raised an army and marched towards London.  Parliament dissolved the Committee of Both Kingdoms when the alliance ended, but its English members continued to meet as the Derby House Committee. For example, Charles finally made terms with the Covenanters in August 1641, but although this might have weakened the position of the English Parliament, the Irish Rebellion of 1641 broke out in October 1641, largely negating the political advantage he had obtained by relieving himself of the cost of the Scottish invasion. , In the 1970s, revisionist historians challenged both the Whig and the Marxist theories, notably in the 1973 anthology The Origins of the English Civil War (Conrad Russell ed.). This truce proved temporary, and a second war followed in mid-1640. , Thomas Hobbes gave a much earlier historical account of the English Civil War in his Behemoth, written in 1668 and published in 1681. These were not restricted to England, as Wales was part of the Kingdom of England and affected accordingly. One was to revive conventions, often outdated. Conversely, one of the leading drainage contractors, the Earl of Lindsey, was to die fighting for the King at the Battle of Edgehill. Monck took Stirling on 14 August and Dundee on 1 September. The Martin Marprelate tracts (1588–1589), applying the pejorative name of prelacy to the church hierarchy, attacked the office of bishop with satire that deeply offended Elizabeth I and her Archbishop of Canterbury John Whitgift.  After the Restoration in 1660, nine of the surviving regicides not living in exile were executed and most others sentenced to life imprisonment.. When the King failed to issue a proper summons, the members could assemble on their own. civil war, English: see English civil war English civil war, 1642–48, the conflict between King Charles I of England and a large body of his subjects, generally called the "parliamentarians," that culminated in the defeat and execution of the king and the establishment of a republican commonwealth. In England, the monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship was ended, while in Ireland the victors consolidated the established Protestant Ascendancy. Unfortunately for Charles and Buckingham, the relief expedition proved a fiasco (1627), and Parliament, already hostile to Buckingham for his monopoly on royal patronage, opened impeachment proceedings against him. Many of those sold to landowners in New England eventually prospered, but many sold to landowners in the West Indies were worked to death. This vision of at least partial democracy in ecclesiology paralleled the struggles between Parliament and the King. , Charles, meanwhile, decided to send an expeditionary force to relieve the French Huguenots, whom French royal troops held besieged in La Rochelle. , In 1645, Parliament reaffirmed its determination to fight the war to a finish.  Charles issued a warrant for Hotham's arrest as a traitor but was powerless to enforce it. Historical records count 84,830 dead from the wars themselves. , Cromwell's suppression of the Royalists in Ireland in 1649 is still remembered by many Irish people. By the early 1640s, Charles was left in a state of near-permanent crisis management, confounded by the demands of the various factions. The end of the First Civil War, in 1646, left a partial power vacuum in which any combination of the three English factions, Royalists, Independents of the New Model Army ("the Army"), and Presbyterians of the English Parliament, as well as the Scottish Parliament allied with the Scottish Presbyterians (the "Kirk"), could prove strong enough to dominate the rest. , All this put Charles in a desperate financial state. After the Siege of Drogheda, the massacre of nearly 3,500 people — around 2,700 Royalist soldiers and 700 others, including civilians, prisoners and Catholic priests (Cromwell claimed all had carried arms) — became one of the historical memories that has driven Irish-English and Catholic-Protestant strife during the last three centuries. Sources: S.R.  At the time, Charles had with him about 2,000 cavalry and a small number of Yorkshire infantrymen, and using the archaic system of a Commission of Array, his supporters started to build a larger army around the standard.  He received orders "to rescue His Majesty's person, and the persons of the Prince [of Wales] and the Duke of York [James II] out of the hands of those desperate persons who were about them. It explained the Civil War as resulting from centuries of struggle between Parliament (notably the House of Commons) and the Monarchy, with Parliament defending the traditional rights of Englishmen, while the Stuart monarchy continually attempted to expand its right to dictate law arbitrarily.  His beheading took place on a scaffold in front of the Banqueting House of the Palace of Whitehall on 30 January 1649. , Figures for Scotland are less reliable and should be treated with caution. Charles followed his father's dream in hoping to unite the kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland into a single kingdom.  It was part of the wider Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The Scots went on to invade England, occupying Northumberland and Durham. Ireland had undergone continual war since the rebellion of 1641, with most of the island controlled by the Irish Confederates.  Sir Thomas Fairfax defeated a Royalist uprising in Kent at the Battle of Maidstone on 1 June. From the thirteenth century, monarchs ordered the election of representatives to sit in the House of Commons, with most voters being the owners of property, although in some potwalloper boroughs every male householder could vote. 1. In February 1638, the Scots formulated their objections to royal policy in the National Covenant. On 4 April 1660, in the Declaration of Breda, Charles II made known the conditions of his acceptance of the Crown of England. Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although the idea of Parliamentary sovereignty was only legally established as part of the Glorious Revolution in 1688.. , Although Cromwell's New Model Army had defeated a Scottish army at Dunbar, Cromwell could not prevent Charles II from marching from Scotland deep into England at the head of another Royalist army. As King of Scots, James had become accustomed to Scotland's weak parliamentary tradition since assuming control of the Scottish government in 1583, so that upon assuming power south of the border, the new King of England was aff… He resigned as head of the army, so clearing Cromwell's road to power.  In the wake of the conquest, the victors confiscated almost all Irish Catholic-owned land and distributed it to Parliament's creditors, to Parliamentary soldiers who served in Ireland, and to English who had settled there before the war. This saved Buckingham but confirmed the impression that Charles wanted to avoid Parliamentary scrutiny of his ministers. For example, a failure to attend and receive knighthood at Charles's coronation became a finable offence with the fine paid to the Crown. , In 1643, Royalist forces won at Adwalton Moor, gaining control of most of Yorkshire. Charles moved in a westerly direction, first to Stafford, then on to Shrewsbury, as support for his cause seemed particularly strong in the Severn valley area and in North Wales.  Many members of the bourgeoisie fought for the King, while many landed aristocrats supported Parliament.  Behemoth offered a uniquely historical and philosophical approach to naming the catalysts for the war.  Fairfax, a constitutional monarchist and moderate, declined to have anything to do with the trial. ], [s.l.  Charles wanted one uniform Church throughout Britain and introduced a new, High Anglican version of the English Book of Common Prayer to Scotland in the middle of 1637. Here's an interesting read: a transcript of the revised version of Barry Coward's presidential lecture given at the Historical Association’s Annual Conference at the Museum of Childhood on 12 April 2008 (a shorter version was given to the Friends of Senate House Library on 7 March 2005). The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers"), mainly over the manner of England's governance and issues of religious freedom. Pym immediately launched a Bill of Attainder stating Strafford's guilt and demanding that he be put to death. Ever since this Parliament has been known as the Long Parliament. An English Civil War novel from a highly-acclaimed author - London, 1647.  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